White Vinification  

Α. Excellent transportation of grapes to the winery using traditional baskets or plastic buckets. The transportation of grapes plays a significant role in the success of vinification. They must be transported to the winery quickly and intact, in order to avoid negative repercussions of extraction and oxidation.

Β.Grape Crusher

The stem (pomace) is separated from the grape. After their separation from the stalk, the grapes are led to the wine press with the help of a special pump.

C. Wine press

In this stage, discontinuous and pneumatic winepresses are used. Inside these, the collection of grape must is achieved by means of successive compressions. The best quality must is the one produced upon the first compression, the so-called free-run must, because it contains fewer tannins, that in high concentration give an intense color and acrid taste, which is undesirable for a white wine.

D. Racking

After the wine press, the must is led to the tanks with a natural flow (this is why the wine press is located at a greater height than the tanks) through a pipe. There, the must is cooled to 10°C in order to decelerate the beginning of alcoholic fermentation. The particles which suspend within the must, settle. This is the so-called mud, a sediment that is needed in the production of a qualitative wine. Therefore, the aim of racking is the fining of the must prior to fermentation.

Ε. Fermentation
Once racking is complete, the clean must is transferred into a clean tank (like communicative vessels). At this point, the temperature of the must is increased from 10°C to 18°C. The quality of a wine depends to a significant extent on the temperature of its fermentation, because this determines the amount of aromatic esters created during fermentation. Once alcoholic fermentation is complete, namely the conversion of sugars into alcohol, the wine is ready to be bottled after approximately two months. This is a fresh white wine that must be consumed within 2 years at the most from the time of its harvest. For aged white wines, when the must is fermented, it is then transferred into barrels where the fermentation process is complete. The wine remains and ages inside the barrels for approximately one year after being bottled.

Red Vinification  

Α. Excellent transportation of grapes as for white vinification.

Β. Grape Crusher

The stem (pomace) is separated from the grape. After separation from the stalk, the grape pulp is then led to a fermentation tank.

C. Fermentation Tanks

As the grape pulp passes from the grape crusher into the fermentation tanks, it begins to ferment at a controlled temperature between 26°C and 30°C.

D. Maceration

When fermentation begins, the pomace (peels and kernel) rise to the top of the tank pushed up by CO² (carbon dioxide) and it takes the form of a so-called 'hat'. With the help of a pump, the must is pumped from the bottom of the tank back to the top. It is then left to drop over the pomace which absorbs it (absorption). The maceration of a wine that will be consumed when it is young lasts about 2-3 days. However, in case of an aged wine, maceration can last from about 8-15 days.

Ε. Separation and Pressing
The fermented must (or wine, depending on the duration of maceration) is separated with the help of gravity in order to be transported into another tank where alcoholic fermentation is completed. It is likely that malolactic fermentation will follow here. This is the transformation of malic acid from lactic bacteria into lactic acid which helps to the reduction of acidity. This produces 'unpressed wine'. The pomace, which is now free of liquid, is directed to the winepress to add more wine quantity which is called 'pressed wine'.

Ageing in barrels
Depending on the grape variety and the region, red wines are aged in barrels for a period of 6 months to 4 years. These wines can also be aged in bottles from 2 to many years!

Sweet wines  

Vinification of sweet wines differs in some point from the corresponding white and red vinifications.

a) In sweet wines (mistelia), we add wine alcohol (or wine spirit) directly to the must, which is not fermented. In this way, all the primary aromas and flavors of the variety they are coming from, are preserved

b) In sweet wines, once the must is partially fermented, the alcohol is added. One part of the total alcoholic strength comes from the natural fermentation, while the rest comes from alcohol addition. They contain primitive aromas as well as aromas produced after fermentation. Those two types belong to the category of liquor wines.

c) Naturally sweet wines come mainly from the sun-dried grapes, which include – because of the dehydration- concentrated must with a high content in sugars. The must is fermented until a certain point and the fermentation is interrupted (usually) by itself, because of the high content in alcohol. In this way, the alcohol included comes exclusively from natural fermentation and the wine preserves a significant amount of the initial sugars.


Winery: Kaspakas, Limnos, Greece,
tel.-fax. +30 22540 22270
Office: 66, Tralleon Str., Athens, Greece,
PO Box 1114
tel.-fax. +30 210 2024806
Orders:tel. +30 210 2024806, mob. +30 6979229831